The Practice Standard for Earned Value sets out the Develop Schedule process, which is simply a way of turning all the stuff in your WBS into a workable plan with timescales. Basically, it’s time to turn the WBS into a Gantt chart.
I guess you could use earned value for non-Gantt chart scheduling, but I can’t get my head around how that would work (tell me in the comments if this is something you do!).
The Practice Standard doesn’t go into loads of detail about how to make a project schedule, as there are other places you can go for that information – like the Practice Standard for Scheduling and also the PMBOK® Guide. However, the particular earned value bits of scheduling are covered in the EV standard, and especially this process.
There are two inputs to this process:
The scope baseline is more than just the WBS. It also includes the scope statement and the WBS dictionary, so it’s the full set of documents about project scope and the full understanding of what the scope is. It’s the exact spec to a level of detail that allows someone in the team to get the work done.
The resource breakdown structure is the comprehensive guide to who is working on the project as well as the other, non-people, resources required to get the job done.
What to do
The Practice Standard is light on the ‘how to schedule’ element, as I mentioned above, but from a specifically EV perspective, here’s what to take into account:
This last part is particularly important because it’s the way the schedule and budget relate that drives the EV calculations. You need the same dates, milestones, assumptions and resources set up in each so the measurement is consistent between both systems. In other words, you need to be sure that the work being done is accurately accounted for so that you are working out the right planned value.
Finally, get your project schedule approved the normal way and it then becomes the schedule baseline, against which you can track progress and monitor performance.
The output for the Develop Schedule process is only the integrated master schedule, as you would expect.
The ‘master’ part of the IMS, as I understand it, is a way of referring to the fact this is the top level project schedule. The control account managers may have detailed sub-plans for their parts, and you might have intermediate level plans, depending on how complicated the project is. But the IMS – the master schedule – is the full picture of everything required to get the project done.
Dealing with changes
As with any aspect of project management, we have to allow and account for what happens when things change. It’s great to have the IMS as your overarching master schedule and performance measurement baseline, but it’s unrealistic to think that we’ll deliver everything perfectly to plan because that isn’t what happens in real life.
So, we need to use the change control process as and when needed, to make sure the whole thing stays aligned to actual performance. That’s not to say you’ll be re-baselining the project every day, but you will keep the schedule up to date with real progress to compare back to the original baseline, and then re-baseline if and when that becomes appropriate.
If you make schedule changes, you also need to consider what that means for the project budget. When using EVM, you can’t get away from the fact that the two need to align – that’s the point of this way of project tracking, after all.
The IMS exists as a way to outline what the team is planning to do and it gives you the logic for measuring performance. It’s important to get it as good as it can possibly be because it’s what future progress will be measured against and it’s used for calculating future outcomes – and you should want those to be as accurate as possible.
Next time, I’ll be looking at the next process in the earned value landscape, which is establishing the budget.
Pin for later reading
Someone emailed me the other day asking about how to use percent complete to track progress on their project schedule. It’s not the worst way to measure performance, but as I’ve got more experienced at putting schedules together, and the work I do is more uncertain, I’ve got less interested in using percent complete.
It means very little (at least, the way we were using it – which was basically a guess to feed into a schedule that was also mainly guessing given the level of complexity and uncertainty, and changes every week).
So I started thinking about schedule performance tracking – and there are plenty more ways to measure your progress than sticking to percent complete.
The infographic below shares some of the ways I know to measure your performance. You wouldn’t want to use them all on the same project necessarily, but it’s good to have options. Which ones do you use?
On this blog I’ve looked at different Knowledge Areas and how they apply to us as project managers, and also taken a budgeting and cost focus on a lot of articles. But what if you are managing an agile project? How do some of the financially-leaning Knowledge Areas work when you are working in agile ways?
Here’s how. Today, I’m looking at how the schedule management Knowledge Area applies to the agile work process.
Project Schedule Management
When you work in an adaptive environment, your project schedules aren’t going to look like big old Gantt charts. You’ve got short cycles to do the work in. With a lot of the people I mentor, we’re talking two week sprints.
The short cycles allow you to do work, review the work and then tweak the results as necessary, including any testing that needs to be done. Ideally, you don’t want all your features dropping on the testing team on the last day of the sprint because that’s not kind!
One team I worked with had this problem a lot so actually set up testing sprints running ‘behind’ the development sprints, just so there was enough time to test everything. Whatever works.
Scheduling is a cost-driven activity because people cost money, and you need people resources to do the work. That’s why it’s important to understand what scheduling options are available to you and how best to get the most out of the time and people that you have.
This could look like pull-based scheduling – which is what I am doing on one Agile team at the moment. There are a lot of tasks. I have the luxury of being able to decide on my next task. They all have to get done, and I can choose. Within reason!
Or it could look like on-demand scheduling. I have used a scheduling approach on a predictive project where we only planned the next three months in detail and let the rest of it unfold as we got closer to the date. It was the only way to stay on top of the work, on that monster project. It wasn’t a project being run with agile principles, but our just-in-time approach to scheduling made our lives easier. As I said, whatever works.
If you work in a big company, there are probably predictive and adaptive methods in use. All of the projects need to fit into some kind of PMO roadmap that allows the business to strategically plan the change effort.
The Agile Practice Guide talks about using predictive, adaptive and hybrid approaches to combine practices to get the best approach for the project or programme being delivered. Consider what scaling you would need to do to your current methods based on:
However, good schedule management skills are universal, and being able to break down the work, estimate, ensure work is given to the right task owners, track progress against tasks being completed – all those are fundamental skills. The tools and techniques you use to do them might be different depending on whether you are taking predictive or adaptive approaches.
Your PMO should be able to support all kinds of ways of working, and if they can’t yet, they are probably thinking about how to make sure they can in the future, because more and more PMOs are needing to adapt the way they work to be able to better support agile project teams.
From a financial perspective, you should be able to track the resource cost (and any other costs directly related to scheduling, if there are any) via timesheets or the equivalent way of reporting actual hours worked. This is especially useful if your team is not 100% dedicated to your project. If they are only doing your project, and you’re running on a timeboxed approach, you should easily be able to work out how many hours it took you to get the output from this timebox.
Schedule Management as a Knowledge Area is applicable to project managers working in agile environments. As with all tailoring, you take what you need and adapt to the project, team and processes you are using.
Pin for later reading:
We need to measure project performance to see if the project is on track.
The graphic below shares some ideas on the different ways you can measure work performance. None of these suggestions is better than any other – they are all appropriate for different projects, environments and levels of project management maturity.
Do you use any of these approaches to measure progress on your projects? Why (or why not)? Let us know in the comments section below!
For more on this idea, and a bit more background on the performance measures, check out this article:
It’s time to look at another project management Knowledge Area from the PMBOK Guide®-- Sixth Edition. This time, we’re diving into Project Scope Management. I’m going to be looking in detail at the major changes between the Fifth Edition and the current version. It feels like the Fifth Edition came out of circulation a while ago, but I know (anecdotally) that some people are still yet to update their internal processes to align to the Sixth Edition.
In practice, I don’t think that matters much. The changes aren’t radical – and while it’s good for new people being certified to work in an environment where the language and expectations align to what they studied as part of their PMP® prep, no one is going to find it difficult to work in a v5 environment.
So, onwards to this Knowledge Area. Let’s dive in!
Plan Scope Management Process
This is the first process in the Knowledge Area, and it makes sure you are setting yourself up for success. As with many Knowledge Areas, we start by planning out what we are going to do in this domain before getting on with the work.
The inputs haven’t changed from the Fifth Edition. They are still:
The objective of this process is to consider how you are going to get to an understanding of what the project scope is, so you need all of those things.
Tools & Techniques
There isn’t much change here either. Expert judgment and meetings remain as they were before, and there is the addition of data analysis.
You might recall that data analysis was added in as a tool and technique to schedule management too.
Data analysis is a lovely catch all for the kinds of things you might be looking at during your planning. For example, you will probably do some alternatives evaluation to decide which requirements and specific functionality or solutions you want to move forward with.
Nothing has changed here either.
At the end of working through this process, you’ll have the scope management plan and the requirements management plan.
I’d say that if you have a repeatable process in place with solid templates and expectations for managing scope, you should be able to complete the work required here quite quickly. You might not need to write a detailed document for requirements management and scope management, if you can include a paragraph in your main project management plan. There’s nothing in the PMBOK Guide®-- Sixth Edition that specifies you have to have separate documents, so go light on paperwork where you can!
Next time I’ll be looking at the second process in this Knowledge Area: Collect Requirements.