Wyzant (say: Wise Ant, I think), a marketplace that matches up tutors and students for in-person and online study sessions, has done some research into how people feel about working with numbers.
They surveyed 235 students who recently struggled with statistics. Only 5.5% of these students were pursuing a career in a maths-related field, and many called out business or project management as a potential career path.
That’s a lot of people who don’t intend to use maths as their ‘full time’ day job who are using statistics as part of their course and possibly their future job. Nearly 45% of the students said, “I’m not a maths person,” which is the answer I would have given too. If you hold that view about yourself, you’re creating more stress, anxiety and mystery around the basics of statistics.
What People Struggle With
70% of all the students struggled with the same two statistics concepts, hypothesis testing and probability.
Personally I don’t use hypothesis testing in my project management work, but I’m sure understanding it is essential in some industries. It hasn’t been since university that I’ve had to think about hypotheses, thankfully. My days of having to understand T-tests and ANOVA are hopefully long gone… if I ever truly understood them at all.
Probability, though – we’re all exposed to that as a function of risk management. It’s often so simplified though that risk assessments are subjective: “I think that my risk is not likely, likely, quite likely, almost definitely going to happen.”
Wyzant worked with expert tutors in the field of statistics to identify the concepts and break them down in ways we can all understand. The article quotes PhD candidate, Brian, who tutors university students in stats:
“Typically, when students are introduced to the normal distribution, they’re given a curve and told probability is the area under the curve. But this is still confusing.”
He says it’s easier to think of probability if you break up the area under the curve into 100 squares, each equal in size.
“If you can look at the distribution and say each of these squares is equal to 1% probability, you can just count the squares to develop good intuition about what the normal distribution is and what it means.”
Image credit: Wyzant
I can see how thinking about probability in this way would make it clearer. The bell curve of a normal distribution is all well and good but blocks really call out the way that the 100% is made up and how it spreads out across the distribution.
What do you think?
The website has some helpful guides for common statistics and probability concepts as well.
You might also find this book interesting: Math for Grownups. I certainly found it helpful!
How to demo your project deliverables
Demos and prototypes save your project time and money because you can get early feedback. I’ve talked about that before (in this video) but a couple of people have asked me for some more tips around setting up demos. And I’m very happy to oblige.
Let’s get on with it then, shall we?
The demo environment
Pick a nice room. By that I mean one that is large enough to fit everyone in comfortably and that’s got enough power sockets. Everyone brings a device along these days and they all need plugging in.
Understand the room’s heating and lighting controls. You don’t want people getting fidgety because they forgot their jacket – you want them concentrating on your amazing project deliverable.
If you are doing your demo via a web conference, get the software set up well before you expect everyone else to join the call. Test your microphone and headset and make sure you can share control of the screen with your co-presenters, if you have any.
Manage the expectations of the people in the room. Are you showing them a very rough outline of a product, a prototype that doesn’t quite work properly yet, a feature-rich almost-finished product, or the final thing? Set their expectations around what they are going to see so they aren’t disappointed when features don’t work or when you tell them it’s too late to change the colour because you’ve already ordered 30,000 in blue.
Review your objectives
What is it that you want people to get out of this demo? You can organise a demo or show people a prototype for a number of reasons such as:
Think carefully about why you want to do this demo and what outputs you are expecting. Do your demo attendees have the same understanding as you? It’s worth running through the objectives at the start of the meeting, just in case they don’t.
Practice, practice, practice. A complete dry run is a good idea. You want your audience to notice what you are saying, not get cut off halfway through your web conference because you don’t know how to use the meeting controls.
Walk through the demo in preparation, whether you are doing it in front of a ‘live’ audience or via a computer screen.
Prepare for questions
Be ready to answer questions. You are showing them your project deliverable in anticipation of some kind of feedback so expect them to have questions about what it does, how it does that and what else it could do. Be prepared to manage the ‘wouldn’t it be great if…’ type questions if you aren’t able to consider any modifications at this point.
Provide back up materials
Your demo attendees will hopefully be so excited about what you have built that they will want to share it with their teams. Have some materials ready so that they can do that: screenshots or handouts are great, but a test login (if software) or samples (if something else) and details of how to use it are better.
This gives them the chance to play with what you have created and if you want further feedback, let them know that you are open to their ideas and provide details of how to get them to you – direct contact, via an online request form or so on.
Demos and prototypes are a really powerful tool, especially if you are delivering a software product or a tangible item. End users particularly find this sort of workshop or meeting a very valuable session as they can see what they are getting. In my experience, showing someone a demo of your product helps build engagement too, as they start to get excited and they can see the idea become real.
However, make sure that if you are doing a demo that you are in a position to comment about when they are likely to get to access the final deliverable. There’s nothing worse than seeing a demo and getting excited about the project only to be told, or you can’t have it for 18 months. Set expectations carefully!
How have you used prototypes and demos? Let us know in the comments.
Elizabeth Harrin also blogs at A Girl’s Guide to Project Management.
|In this video I share 4 tips to help you get the best out of attending a project management conference.|
A bridge is a way of displaying financial information in visual format. You might also know it is as a waterfall chart, or ‘the one with the flying bricks that looks like something from Mario’. It’s just a way of showing how an initial position has been affected by subsequent changes, so you can see why that would be useful for a company’s financial position. It can show changes that are positive and changes that are negative, and ends up with the new cumulative position as you can see in this diagram.
This picture shows a completely made up scenario, but I think it illustrates a point. In September, the starting position for this department was $75,000. This could represent value, profit or anything else. Then there were some things that changed. These are illustrated by the small floating boxes: the first change that happened was a positive improvement of $16,000. Then there were some other criteria, inputs and changes that also increased the situation positively.
Now we come to the black boxes. These on my chart represent money out, so let’s say this department spent $2,000 on some new software licences and $1,000 on a big party for everyone. This has had an impact on the net position so if my maths is right, the closing position on the graph, the situation in October, is now $100,000.
Great. But how is this relevant to projects?
Typically this type of bridge is used to represent financial information and you have financial information on your project, don’t you? I think it is a great way to present the impact of changes on your project budget to stakeholders. It’s useful because it’s a good visual representation of how you got from there to here and where the money went.
So you could use it to show the financial changes on your project, but there is nothing to stop you using the same layout to display other sorts of changes. Take this version, for example.
This shows you the situation in September in terms of project days. There are 150 days allocated to this project. Then there are a number of changes put forward. The green boxes show what would happen if you add those changes – the number of days spent on the project goes up (it’s not rocket science really). There are also some changes that save you time on the project. Let’s say that the big one, the 20 day time saving, is because the project sponsor has decided that the overseas office isn’t going to be included in this initiative after all, so there is no need to train those team members and you can save a whole lot of time. Another little change knocks 3 days off your project total.
If all these changes are approved, your project will now take 152 days.
When you are looking at individual changes at the change board, some stakeholders might find it hard to keep approving changes that add time. Two changes that add 10 days each? That’s huge. But when they see all the changes on the table that month laid out like this they can see that approving them all only adds 2 days to the project overall. That’s a very different story.
Of course, you might not want all those changes approved – there might be some stupid suggestions in there or functionality that would be better pushed off to a Phase 2. But using this bridge diagram gives you a new way to present the same data to stakeholders and help them decide on the impact overall.
I hope you find it useful!
You know how they say a picture is worth a thousand words? Well, at ProjectManagement.com this month we are really testing that theory with the features on visual project management. And not wanting to miss out, I thought I would share some drawing tips with you.
Drawing? If you are thinking now that you can’t draw, bear with me. By the end of this article you will be able to, I promise.
First, let’s think about why you should be using illustrations and pictures in your project meetings. It’s easy to come up with lots of reasons:
And I’m sure you can think of other reasons.
When can you use illustrations in your project meetings? There are lots of times when it is appropriate, for example:
OK? Let’s get started.
I hated drawing at school so if I can do this, then anyone can. Think of people as a five-pointed star. Then replace the top point with a head, like in the illustration below. An easy person! You can make it look as if the person is pointing, and put them together around an object to represent breakout sessions or collaborative working.
It doesn’t take much to adapt the star concept to have pointy arms and lots of legs to represent a group. I know this particular group only has 5 legs which isn’t realistic. Six would have been better (although there are 4 heads in the front row so someone is still missing out). But you still know what it relates to, don’t you? You can see that this could represent a client group, a project team, a user community… anything.
Process maps are represented in a particular way when you are using Visio or similar to put them together in their final version. But in a workshop, you can have much more flexibility about how you draw out processes on flip charts or illustrate them on slides. And there are likely to be some processes that are discussed in meetings where you don’t want a full-blown detailed process map and a quick illustration to show that there is a process will do just fine.
Arrows are great as shortcut symbols for processes. It’s easy to draw a basic arrow, I’m sure everyone can do that. A few dotted lines and it becomes the most basic process diagram. You can write in the sections if you want to show what happens where (maybe useful for illustrating the project lifecycle in a kick off meeting?). Where your process has several different end points (like accept, reject or hold changes) you can give your arrow multiple-heads, like in the picture below.
One of my favourite types of arrow is the twisty one. It can stand for lots of things but it represents transformation. So something goes in, something happens and an output falls out the other side. It could mean that software code is quality checked, or that ‘the magic happens’ in a black box process that is being provided by a third party. But it is fiendish to draw, at least that’s what I thought.
I learned how to draw the twisty arrow and the other elements at the Oredev IT conference a few years ago, in a session about visual recoding. The speaker broke it down and I have done the same for you in the picture below.
So now you have the tools to illustrate your meetings, why not give it a go?