A recent question on Quora prompted me to spend 20 minutes writing an answer because I believe it to be a critically important question.
The question was "How is strategic management used in project execution?" I didn't really want to answer that question, so I indulged myself and changed it to “How does project management fit with strategic management?”
Organizations must have a strategy. If they don’t, let’s just stop the conversation here.
Strategy needs to have a plan of execution. It is of no use for a bunch of executives to fly to some resort somewhere and dream up a strategy, then fly back, dispersing it to the minions, expecting that they will run off in all directions implementing it exactly as they envisioned. Strategy without execution is no more than a puff of smoke. It is where the rubber meets the sky, as we used to say at Michelin Tires.
Now let’s talk about projects. This is where the rubber meets the road. Others may have said that Projects are used to execute a strategy, and therefore must be aligned with the strategy.
I take a slightly different view. That is, Portfolios of Programs and Projects must align with the Strategic Intent of the organization.
Portfolios are often based on business units, answering the question “To be successful, what set of Programs and Projects must my part of the organization execute over this period of time, and for which I have funding, in order to meet the business goals set out for my part of the organization, interleaving with other parts of the organization?” The period of time may be a year, three years, five years or more; or changing continuously as in Agile Organizations - another topic.)
So you might ask, “What is a Program, then?”. I’m glad you asked.
A Program is a series of inter-related, and possibly inter-dependent projects, all of which must be executed to achieve a business benefit or set of benefits. That is, if any one of the projects is not executed (not necessarily at the same time), the business benefit cannot be achieved.
So - Projects are part of Programs (and for various reasons, if we define it this way, we must also say that a Program may contain many Projects or even only one Project). Projects deliver products, usually on time, on budget and to the desired level of quality using either traditional (predictive) or Agile (adaptive) methods. Products of projects are used to realize the benefits defined in the strategy and in this way set the stage for delivery of benefits, albeit not the actual benefits themselves. Benefits Realization Management is another topic for another day.
So how does all this answer the [modified] question?
Strategy is a must-have for any organization. Implementation or execution of Strategy has to be funded and planned. The best way to do this, in my view, is through Business-defined Portfolios containing Programs and Projects, that are created to be in lock-step with the Strategy, and through which executives who created the strategy cause their vision to become a reality.
It goes without saying that executives who implement their Strategies this way must provide the organizational resources required: their personal support, funding, people, and careful attention to change and how it will impact the organization. This raises the specter of Organizational Change Management, also a topic for another day.
I believe executives who set strategy and then empower their people to deliver it, providing the required resources and support whenever they need it, represent the epitome of Servant Leaders. Set the direction, trust your people and give them what they need to do the job.
What do you think? What is happening in your organizations? Is strategy delivery baked into your DNA? Or is it an annual talk about corporate vision that does little but excite people for a few hours a year?
“Because I said so…”. This is a “powerful” sentence that (almost) every child has heard at least once. When they are criticized, misunderstood or just denied of what they want (with no explanation whatsoever), a child’s first impulse is either to dissolve into tears and/or to push back, puffing and woofing angrily towards the “repressor/enemy” (usually an adult). They want to show that they are in pain (psychologically) and frustrated.
But when you are 4 or 5 or 7 years old, it’s almost impossible to describe eloquently your state of mind, your emotions. It’s much easier to display them. This is why, in those particular moments, children begin to shout, whimper or scream. They actually begin to (what psychologist call) act-out (their feelings/emotions/ frustrations).
And guess what? In the adult world, it’s almost the same.
As adults, we learn to restrain (even repress) ourselves from physically exhibiting our (deep) emotions. We try to explain them, rationalise them as much as possible. However, as soon as somebody is “pushing” (harder) our buttons, we tend to return to our inner (indignant) child. We sulk, puff and woof, retreating from that conversation or, quite the opposite, retaliating in a strong, powerful manner. And, more often than we think, we want to protect ourselves by being more offensive. Instead of understanding our fears, insecurities and self-doubts, we block them and, most importantly, we turn them back on our opponent/”enemy”.
Didn’t you feel, after a dense, heated conversation and after you had time to cool off, that you might have just overreacted? That some of the actions you took and/or replies you uttered seemed (after you cooled off) exaggerated and inflamed considering the light weight of the topic itself?
That’s because you acted-out your state of mind. In that particular moment, the anger you experienced came from the fear that you will not get what you need/want, that you are not loved, not respected, not included/accepted by the group.
Isn’t that exactly how it was when we were kids, only with more psychological “baggage” accumulated over the years? We are adults now, we can be angry and fight back with more power and more means. We can win this one - not like when we were kids.
Oh, this is such an illusion…
Now, imagine all of these for an individual in a leadership position. The number of threats and (possible) conflicts rise exponentially. Higher expectations and greater ambition bring an increased level of stress and anxiety. All of the repressed fears, emotions find an easier way to surface and the individual (the leader?!?) is more prone to act-out in difficult times such as short deadlines, conflicting teams, disgruntled employees, stressful projects and more. Just like in childhood, acting-out brings (most of the time) many disadvantages and problems in any human relation.
Obviously, we wonder if we can avoid these situations as much as possible or, at least, reduce their probability. It’s hard to give a recipe for such a complex psychological matter.
However, I would venture a guess and offer three key elements that, in my opinion, any individual should focus on if she/he wants to be a better person (and, consequently, a better leader). As a side note - these are also core elements of servant leadership and promoted as such.
This is only the tip of the iceberg, I am sure. Emotions, sensations, feelings, fears: all of them are part of a “world” that constitutes the foundation of any relationship; being personal or professional. Therefore, we must not ignore them but try to understand and have them work for our benefit as individuals, especially, for the ones aspiring to lead.
To be the leader everyone expects today, we need to heal the “wounds” from yesterday or, at least, acknowledge and start working on them. And this is the toughest leadership decision that any of us wishing to lead has to make.
Are you up for it?
Expert or Leader?
Those of us who graduate in technology careers, as in my case, tend to have a reputation for being independent and autonomous, and we are often e labeled as "NERDs".
Recall that the stereotype of "NERD" represents a very intelligent person, fascinated by knowledge, expert in technical issues and proud of it, but quite isolated from the environment that surrounds him or her, sometimes experiencing social disorders.
I have to admit that in the first years of my career in software development projects, I found many characters with the aforementioned characteristics: recognized experts highly valued for their knowledge, people who concentrated on their work, hoping that no one interrupts them, enjoying their interaction with computers more than with people.
And the more they specialized, it seemed that some traits of these experts were more accentuated, such as, for example:
Does this mean that experts cannot be leaders?
Are “being leader” and “being an expert” mutually exclusive?
Ginger Levin, in the Prologue of the book "IT Project Management - A Geek's Guide to Leadership", authored by Byron A. Love, expresses that successful Information Technology professionals pursue continuous technical training to keep up with technological changes. But the pace of technological change leaves them little time to develop their leadership skills.
As a result, many professionals are promoted to leadership roles based on their technical performance and not on their leadership skills - we call this the "Halo" effect. As a result, teams perform inefficiently.
Precisely, the study “State of the Global Workplace”, conducted by the consultancy Gallup, states that only 13% of employees worldwide are committed to what they do. It states: "Committed employees work with passion and feel a deep connection with their company, they drive innovation and make the organization move forward".
This means that just one in eight workers is "psychologically committed to their work and willing to make positive contributions to their organizations."
The rest of the employees are either "not committed" (63%) or "actively unengaged" (24%). The latter are unhappy, unproductive and prone to spread negativity to their colleagues.
Gerald M. Weinberg in his book “Becoming a Technical Leader” , says that since he was young, he made the decision to enter computer career because he did not want to deal with a leadership role.
However, then Weinberg says that his strategy did not give him the expected result: "As I stood out with my technical skills, my colleagues considered me an expert and respected me for it. Soon they began to consult me and ask for advice. They put me in charge of a team. They asked me to teach courses. The more I resisted becoming a leader, the more I became one. Finally, I had to face the question of leadership, despite my desire to avoid it. "
As described by Ginger Levin and Gerald Weinberg, developing leadership skills is necessary, even in professions related to information technology.
Estanislao Bachrach, Doctor in Biological Sciences and author of the Best Sellers “Agilmente” and “En Cambio”, comments in his lectures, which can be seen – in Spanish - on YouTube, that in current times “It does not make a difference being technically good. The real difference is made by being creative, empathetic”.
Based on the previous reflections, we can summarize that, as experts in technology we must become aware of the need to also develop our leadership skills and achieve the motivation and commitment of our colleagues, generating collaborative work teams to obtain the required performance in these times of high competition and change.
We must worry about listening and understanding the concerns of our colleagues, developing empathy towards them, focusing on their needs ahead of ours, helping them develop as professionals and as new leaders, that is, developing a servant leadership model.
This way, we will increase the confidence of our employees, while we increase their motivation and, therefore, the efficiency and effectiveness of our teams.
How to start?
First of all, let the fear of "not knowing everything" go, allowing our colleagues to be the experts while we promote a safe environment to allow them to develop with confidence.
Focus on the goals and objectives,not on the technical details, and delegate to them, trusting that they will do a good job.
Allow yourself and your colleagues to make mistakes and learn from them.
Understand that change requires time and discipline. We will not make it overnight. Start right now, and enjoy the process!
Are you ready to become a servant leader?
 Source: Love, Byron A., 2017, “IT Project Management - A Geek’s Guide to Leadership”, CRC Press.
 Source: Study “State of the Global Workplace”, done by Gallup Consulting among 180 million employees in 142 countries.
 Source: Weinberg, Gerald M., 2014, “Becoming a Technical Leader”, LeanPub.
 Source: Estanislao Bachrach - Creatividad y cambio. Congreso Nacional Argentina CREA 2013. YouTube Canal CREA (in Spanish) - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XGT4FX3YA9c&t=362s.
¿Experto o Líder?
Quienes nos graduamos en carreras de tecnología, como es mi caso, solemos tener fama de ser independientes y autónomos e, incluso, muchos somos catalogados de “NERDs”.
Recordemos que el estereotipo de “NERD” representa a una persona muy inteligente, fascinada por el conocimiento, experta en cuestiones técnicas y orgullosa por ello, pero bastante aislada del entorno que lo rodea, llegando a veces a experimentar trastornos sociales.
Tengo que reconocer que, en los primeros años de mi carrera, en proyectos de desarrollo de software, me encontré con muchos personajes con las características mencionadas: expertos reconocidos y muy valorados por sus conocimientos, personas que trabajaban muy concentradas en sus oficinas o puestos de trabajo, tratando que nadie los interrumpa, disfrutando más su interacción con las computadoras que con las personas.
Y cuanto más se especializaban, parecía que más se acentuaban algunas características de estos expertos, como, por ejemplo:
¿Significa esto que los expertos no pueden ser líderes?
Ginger Levin, en el Prólogo del libro “IT Project Management - A Geek’s Guide to Leadership”, de Byron A. Love, expresa que los profesionales exitosos de Tecnologías de la Información persiguen capacitación técnica continua para mantenerse actualizados con los cambios tecnológicos. Pero el ritmo de los cambios tecnológicos les deja poco tiempo para desarrollar el liderazgo.
Como resultado de esto, muchos profesionales son promovidos a roles de liderazgo basados en su desempeño técnico y no en sus habilidades de liderazgo. Lo que llamamos el efecto “Halo”. Y, en consecuencia, los equipos muestran un rendimiento ineficiente.
Justamente, de esto habla el estudio “State of the Global Workplace”, realizado por la consultora Gallup, donde establece que sólo 13% de los empleados, a escala mundial, está comprometido con lo que hace. Lo que quiere decir que apenas uno de cada ocho trabajadores —180 millones de empleados en 142 países en donde se realizó— está “psicológicamente comprometidos con su trabajo y dispuesto a dar contribuciones positivas a sus organizaciones”.
"Los empleados comprometidos trabajan con pasión y sienten una profunda conexión con su empresa. Impulsan la innovación y hacen avanzar la organización", establece el mencionado estudio.
El resto de los empleados, o bien “no está comprometido” (63%) o está “activamente desmotivado” (24%). Estos últimos son infelices, improductivos y propensos a propagar la negatividad a sus colaboradores.
Gerald M. Weinberg en su libro “Becoming a Technical Leader” , comenta que, desde joven, había tomado la decisión de estudiar una carrera de computación porque no quería lidiar con un rol de líder.
Sin embargo, cuenta luego Weinberg que su estrategia no le dio el resultado esperado: “Como me destacaba con los aspectos técnicos, mis colegas me consideraban un experto y me respetaban por ello. Pronto empezaban a consultarme y pedirme asesoramiento. Me pusieron a cargo de un equipo. Me pidieron que dictara cursos. Cuanto más me resistía a convertirme en líder, más me iba convirtiendo. Finalmente, tuve que enfrentar la cuestión del liderazgo, a pesar de lo que me molestaba.”
Tal como lo describen Ginger Levin y Gerald Weinberg, desarrollar el liderazgo es necesario, también en las profesiones relacionadas con la tecnología de la información.
Estanislao Bachrach, Doctor en Ciencias Biológicas y autor de los Best Sellers “Ágilmente” y “En Cambio”, comenta en sus conferencias, las que se pueden ver en Youtube, que en estos tiempos “No hace la diferencia ser bueno técnicamente. La diferencia la hace ser creativo, empático.”
En base a las reflexiones anteriores, podemos resumir que, como expertos en tecnología debemos tomar conciencia de la necesidad de desarrollar también nuestras habilidades de liderazgo y lograr la motivación y el compromiso de nuestros colaboradores, generando equipos de trabajo colaborativos para obtener el desempeño requerido en estos tiempos de alta competencia y cambio.
Debemos preocuparnos por escuchar y conocer las preocupaciones de nuestros colaboradores, desarrollar empatía hacia ellos poniendo foco en sus necesidades por delante de las nuestras, ayudando a que se desarrollen como profesionales y como nuevos líderes, es decir, desarrollar un modelo de liderazgo de servicio.
Con esto, aumentando la confianza en nuestros colaboradores, aumentaremos su motivación y, por lo tanto, la eficiencia y eficacia de nuestros equipos de trabajo.
En primer lugar, despojarnos del miedo de “no saber todo”, permitiendo que sean nuestros colaboradores los expertos y nosotros quienes les propiciamos el ámbito seguro para que se desenvuelvan con confianza.
Enfocarnos en las metas y los objetivos y no en los detalles técnicos, delegando esto último a nuestros colaboradores.
Permitirnos y permitir a nuestros colaboradores cometer errores, y aprender de ellos.
Entender que los cambios requieren tiempo y disciplina. No lo lograremos de la noche a la mañana. ¡Comenzar ya mismo y disfrutar del proceso!
¿Estás listo para convertirte en un líder servicial?
 Fuente: Love, Byron A., 2017, “IT Project Management - A Geek’s Guide to Leadership”, CRC Press.
 Fuente: Estudio “State of the Global Workplace”, realizado por la consultora Gallup entre 180 millones de empleados en 142 países.
 Fuente: Weinberg, Gerald M., 2014, “Becoming a Technical Leader”, LeanPub.
 Fuente: Estanislao Bachrach - Creatividad y cambio. Congreso Nacional Argentina CREA 2013. YouTube Canal CREA. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XGT4FX3YA9c&t=362s.
There I was, on the Halifax Waterfront Boardwalk just outside Privateers Warehouse, enjoying the beautiful, hot, sweltering day: the sort of day that made it difficult to lick all the drips of the Cows chocolate chip cookie dough ice cream cone I had just salivatingly acquired as they began their rapid trek down the cone onto my hand, threatening to turn my arm into a sticky mess and prompting me to lament the fact that I had forgotten to ask for extra serviettes.
My colleague and I were out for a lunch time stroll, enjoying the cloudless indigo sky and the emerald water, passing Nova Scotia’s trademark Bluenose schooner at its usual dock and dodging tourists coming from the opposite direction, likely from one of the three gargantuan cruise ships that had docked farther down the harbour that morning at Pier 21. They were undoubtedly also on their way to purchase one of those delicious Cows delicacies, firm in their knowledge that the tourist brochure held rolled up in their sweaty fist was leading them to an unusual guilty Haligonian experience.
Since we both served on the same local volunteer board, we fell into a conversation about servant leadership and what it all meant. I expressed my belief that mentoring and coaching was a big part of being on any board, especially in volunteer organizations, due to the limited lifetime of a volunteer role. She conjectured that it didn’t really matter what happened after you left a volunteer organization, because you were no longer responsible, and it was up to those who stayed behind to do their part.
Well, that got me going. I posited that a volunteer board is exactly like an ice cream cone in the heat. The cone is the framework of the organization and the ice cream is its volunteer base, formed of board members and committees of the board. As volunteers finish their terms and leave the organization (those drips of ice cream racing toward their next role in life) they must leave something behind - a fresh scoop of ice cream that has been formed to fit the cone, and well prepared to withstand the heat of the day.
I have to confess my metaphor dwindled into indistinct mumbling at this point.
After gently informing me that my example was fraught with drips, if not gaping holes, my esteemed colleague agreed that one must leave something behind. I said, “Got ya! So you agree with me after all!”. Begrudgingly, she admitted that perhaps she was somewhat hasty in her previous rather heartless assertion and agreed that volunteer board members need guidance and succession planning to keep the board alive and true to its original mandate, providing continuity of purpose.
In our case, the mandate was to provide value to members through networking, professional development and certification. You probably have already guessed the organization in question. You know - the one that provides incredible value to its members and through them to the profession and many industries they serve.
So are volunteer organizations really like Cows ice cream cones in the heat? Of course not, but if that playful similie coerced you into reading this article, my purpose is served. I admit it. I am a shameless snake oil salesman.
But to get on with the real topic, the one that has you on the edge of your seat, seeking answers, allow me to suggest that in a volunteer organization servant leadership is indeed required. It is required in other organizations too, but in this one, because of the fluidity of the board and its committees, even more so.
As a president of a volunteer board or a director of a portfolio, it is your job to develop people to fill your shoes to ensure the organization continues to live on within its original mandate. Because board roles are often quite short, as normally dictated by some fairly stringent by-laws and articles of incorporation, replacing yourself with someone who has been indoctrinated into the volunteer culture of the board has to be a main preoccupation of yours. I’m sure you will agree that bringing someone onto a board with zero experience of the organization’s inner workings is not a way to do this.
So develop your replacement. Lend them a helping hand. Give them an opportunity to see how that finely tuned engine works so they can strive for the success you’ve achieved and learn from the failures you’ve experienced. Succession planning is crucial. Grooming your fellow board members for a leadership role, and encouraging them to also groom their committee members to step into their roles is one of your primary jobs as a volunteer board member.
As you ponder your role, always remember that as a steward of a volunteer organization, it is your job to leave it better than you found it. And what more effective way is there to do this than by preparing those who succeed you to reach for an even higher pinnacle of success than you and your colleagues achieved?
To those of you in the warm part of the globe, I wish you a fabulous summer season, and may you catch all those drips of delicious dairy confection before they leave the bottom of your cone. And to those of you who are not, enjoy your winter sports, resting in the certain knowledge that your ice cream will not melt.
Films are so powerful in telling stories via visuals and narratives. They create change by telling stories that reach the heart and inspire action from within.
Recently, my friends and I attended a documentary film screening of CHASING CORAL at New York City because of Victoria Orlowski, a friend from work. Her son Jeff Orlowski is the young director of CHASING CORAL and CHASING ICE (2014 Emmy Award Winner). We are super proud of him!
Today, I would like to share with you (to state the obvious) some of his awesome project/servant leadership!
Mentors are very powerful in our lives and in our leadership journey. I learned from Victoria that Dr. Jane Goodall had a great influence on Jeff. It started when Jeff attended one of Dr. Goodall speaking event while he was in high school and he chose Anthropology major in college because of her. She is one of many mentors in Jeff's creative journey.
Dr. Jane Goodall devotes her life to the chimps and she is one of the instructors for MASTERCLASS. Dr. Goodall demonstrated and taught us Love and Compassion always. Empathy is critical to observe behaviors and to help us know the right questions to ask. Her unwavering teaching is all about Hope, how human brains solve problems, the resilience of the nature and our indelible human spirit. It is very touching to see the chimps embrace Jane. It is Love! She pointed out that the difference between humans and chimps is our sophisticated language and we are encouraged to use it well!
I now understand that Jeff drew his strength from his mentors as well as his Mom and family and the community. Jeff also shared during his Q&A that he simply does not use disposable plastics. We all can make a simple change every single day in our lives that would have immense impact to our environments.
Suzan, Nelson, Lucy, Victoria and Jeff Orlowski (who took the selfie)
CHASING CORAL is a film directed by Jeff Orlowski. It was a 3 1/2 year project, filmed with 500+ hours underwater, included footage from over 30 countries and was made with the support of over 500 people around the world.
Coral and Chimpanzees: Their project leaders told us amazing life stories and taught us incredible lessons! Now, it is up to us to make simple changes every day that will have long lasting impact. The decision is ours!
FYI – Film Review (CHASING CORAL will be available via Netflix on 7/14/17)