Let's share with you a compendium of advice from the general Colin Powell about Leadership primer:
"Being responsible sometimes means pissing people off."
"The day soldiers stop bringing you their problems is the day you have stopped leading them. They have either lost confidence that you can help them or concluded that you do not care. Either case is a failure of leadership."
"Don't be buffaloed by experts and elites. Experts often possess more data than judgment. Elites can become so inbred that they produce hemophiliacs who bleed to death as soon as they are nicked by the real world."
"Don't be afraid to challenge the pros, even in their own backyard."
"Never neglect details. When everyone's mind is dulled or distracted the leader must be doubly vigilant."
"You don't know what you can get away with until you try."
"Keep looking below surface appearances. Don't shrink from doing so (just) because you might not like what you find."
"Organization doesn't really accomplish anything. Plans don't accomplish anything, either. Theories of management don't much matter. Endeavours succeed or fail because of the people involved. Only by attracting the best people will you accomplish great deeds."
"Organization charts and hence titles count for next to nothing."
"Never let your ego get so close to your position that when your position goes, your ego goes with it."
"Fit no stereotypes. Don't chase the latest management fads. The situation dictates which approach best accomplishes the team's mission."
"Perpetual optimism is a force multiplier."
"Powell's Rules for Picking People"—Look for intelligence and judgment and, most critically, a capacity to anticipate, to see around corners. Also look for loyalty, integrity, a high energy drive, a balanced ego and the drive to get things done."
"Great leaders are almost always great simplifiers, who can cut through argument, debate and doubt, to offer a solution everybody can understand."
Part I: "Use the formula P=40 to 70, in which P stands for the probability of success and the numbers indicate the percentage of information acquired." Part II: "Once the information is in the 40 to 70 range, go with your gut."
"The commander in the field is always right and the rear echelon is wrong, unless proved otherwise."
"Have fun in your command. Don't always run at a breakneck pace. Take leave when you've earned it. Spend time with your families."
"Command is lonely."
hope these lessons provide you the same road to success that they provided General Powell. Good luck...!!!
What’s Classical Organization Theory?
Classical organization theory evolved during the first half of this century. It represents the merger of scientific management, bureaucratic theory, and administrative theory. In 1917, Frederick Taylor developed scientific management theory had four basic principles:
1) Find the one "best way" to perform each task.
2) Carefully match each worker to each task.
3) Closely supervise workers, and use reward and punishment as motivators.
4) The task of management is planning and control.
In 1947, Max Weber expanded on Taylor's theories, and stressed the need to reduce diversity and ambiguity in organizations. The focus was on establishing clear lines of authority and control. Weber's bureaucratic theory emphasized the need for a hierarchical structure of power. It recognized the importance of division of labor and specialization. A formal set of rules was bound into the hierarchy structure to insure stability and uniformity. Weber also put forth the notion that organizational behavior is a network of human interactions, where all behavior could be understood by looking at cause and effect.
Classical management theory was rigid and mechanistic. The shortcomings of classical organization theory quickly became apparent. Its major deficiency was that it attempted to explain peoples' motivation to work strictly as a function of economic reward.
Neoclassical Organization Theory
The Neoclassical approach began with the Hawthorne studies in 1920 (Wikipedia, 2013). It grew out of the limitations of the classical theory. Under classical approach, attention was focused on jobs and machines. After some time workers resisted this approach as it did not provide the social and psychological satisfaction. Therefore, attention shifted towards the human side of management. George Elton Mayo is considered to be the founder to the neoclassical theory (Gupta C B, 1992).
Up to the certain point it means a compromise between the classical theory of organization and the empirical investigations based on behavior sciences. The organizational theoreticians of the neoclassical school take into consideration the principles and proposals of the classical theory of organization as assumptions in their investigations. It is also characteristic of them that they expand and link their investigation with the ten modern theories of organization other scientific disciplines. Through their expanding the areas of organizational investigation and through their empirical research they have enriched the organization theory with new knowledge.
The theoreticians of management process and of the human behavior approach expanded the areas of their investigations to completely new views within the organization, such as participation, communication, motivating, morale, role and position of personnel in the organizational hierarchy and perceptions, and similar views.
The major advantage of the neoclassical theory over the classical model is that the former viewed workers as emotional beings, rather than as functional components that serve the organization. Applicant of the neoclassical theory believe that if employers gain a better understanding of their employees' needs and adjust their organizational structures to those needs, the organization will achieve greater success.
Modern Theory of Organization
Modern understandings of the organization can be broadly classified into: systems approach, socio-technical theory, and contingency or situational approach.
The systems approach considers the organization as a system composed of a set of inter-related - and thus mutually dependent - sub-systems. Thus the organization consists of components, linking processes and goals.
The socio-technical approach considers the organization as composed of a social system, technical system and its environment. These interact among themselves and it is necessary to balance them appropriately for effective functioning of the organization.
The contingency or situational approach recognizes that organizational systems are inter-related with their environment and that different environments require different organizational relationships for effective working of the organization.
The organization design framework portrayed above is called the “Star Model™.” In the Star Model™, design policies fall into five categories. The first is strategy, which determines direction. The second is structure, which determines the location of decision-making power. The third is processes, which have to do with the flow of information; they are the means of responding to information technologies. The fourth is rewards and reward systems, which influence the motivation of people to perform and address organizational goals. The fifth category of the model is made up of policies relating to people (human resource policies), which influence and frequently define the employees’ mind-sets and skills.
The Star Model™ consists of policies that leaders can control and that can affect employee behavior and shows that managers can influence performance and culture, but only by acting through the design policies that affect behavior.
Finally, as you move toward understanding each core concept, there will be times when you get caught in the intersections and become confused as to which concept, theory or perspective you are using. Expect this. Try not to feel discouraged when it happens because this is part of the process of becoming knowledgeable about organization theory. Trust that out of your confusion new possibilities for theorizing, designing and managing organizations will emerge in ways that you would never have imagined before you studied organization theory.