One of the process goals that a disciplined agile team will want to address during construction is Accelerate Value Delivery. Ideally, in each construction iteration a team will move closer to having a version of their solution that provides sufficient functionality to its stakeholders. This implies that the solution is a minimally viable product (MVP) that adds greater business value than its cost to develop and deploy. Realistically it isn’t a perfect world and sometimes a team will run into a bit of trouble resulting in an iteration where they may not have moved closer to something deployable but hopefully they’ve at least learned from their experiences.
This is an important process goal for several reasons. First, it encompasses the packaging aspects of solution development (other important development aspects are addressed by its sister goal Produce a Potentially Consumable Solution). This includes artifact/asset management options such as version control and configuration management as well as your team’s deployment strategy. Second, it provides deployment planning options, from not planning at all (yikes!) to planning late in the lifecycle to the more DevOps-friendly strategies of continuous planning and active stakeholder participation. Third, this goal covers critical validation and verification (V&V) strategies, many of which push testing and quality assurance “left in the lifecycle” so that they’re performed earlier and thereby reducing the average cost of fixing any defects.
The process goal diagram for Accelerate Value Delivery is shown below. The rounded rectangle indicates the goal, the squared rectangles indicate issues or process factors that you may need to consider, and the lists in the right hand column represent potential strategies or practices that you may choose to adopt to address those issues. The lists with an arrow to the left are ordered, indicating that in general the options at the top of the list are more preferable from an agile point of view than the options towards the bottom. The highlighted options (bolded and italicized) indicate default starting points for teams looking for a good place to start but who don’t want to invest a lot of time in process tailoring right now. Each of these practices/strategies has advantages and disadvantages, and none are perfect in all situations, which is why it is important to understand the options you have available to you.
Let’s consider each process factor:
We want to share two important observations about this goal. First, this goal, along with Explore Initial Scope, Coordinate Activities, and Identify Initial Technical Strategy seem to take the brunt of your process tailoring efforts when working at scale. It really does seem to be one of those Pareto situations where 20% addresses 80% of the work, more on this in a future blog posting. As you saw in the discussion of the process issues, the process tailoring decisions that you make regarding this goal will vary greatly based on the various scaling factors. Second, as with all process goal diagrams, the one above doesn’t provide an exhaustive list of options although it does provide a pretty good start.
We’re firm believers that a team should tailor their strategy, including their team structure, their work environment, and their process, to reflect the situation that they find themselves in. When it comes to process tailoring, process goal diagrams not only help teams to identify the issues they need to consider they also summarize potential options available to them. Agile teams with a minimal bit of process guidance such as this are in a much better situation to tailor their approach that teams that are trying to figure it out on their own. The DA toolkit provides this guidance.
Non-functional requirements, also known as quality of service (QoS) or technical requirements, are typically system-wide thus they apply to many, and sometimes all of your functional requirements. Part of ensuring that your solution is potentially consumable each iteration is ensuring that it fulfill its overall quality goals, including applicable NFRs. This is particularly true with life-critical and mission-critical solutions. Good sources for NFRs include your enterprise architects and operations staff, although any stakeholder is a potential source for NFRs.
As your stakeholders tell you about functional requirements they will also describe non-functional requirements (NFRs). These NFRs may describe security access rights, availability requirements, performance concerns, or a host of other issues as saw in my blog regarding initial architecture envisioning. There are three basic strategies, which can be combined, for capturing NFRs: technical stories; acceptance criteria for individual functional requirement (such as stories); and an explicit list.
So what are the implications for implementing NFRs given the three previous capture strategies? Although in the DAD book we make this sort of comparison via a table to improve consumability, in this blog posting I will use prose due to width constraints. Let’s consider each one:
In most situations you should maintain an explicit list and then use that to drive identification of acceptance criteria as we’ve found that it’s more efficient and lower risk in the long run. Of course capturing NFRs is only one part of the overall process of addressing them. You will also need to implement and validate them during construction, as well as address them in your architecture.
An important issue which goes to NFRs such as consumability, supportability, and operability, is that of deliverable documentation. At the start of the project is the best time to identify the required documentation that must be created as part of the overall solution. This potentially includes operations manuals, support manuals, training materials, system overview materials (such as an architecture handbook), and help manuals to name a few. These deliverable documents will be developed and kept up to date via the continuous documentation practice.