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For me, is a mistake call some project like "transformation" project, no matter I have worked in the PMO called "Transformation and Innovation". Why? Because all projects create a transformation inside the organization. It is by systemic conception. I worked to help my actual work place to understand that and when they understood things change a lot.
I do not know if is so easy to identify categories of projects , taking as an example the Digital Transformation , this is not only one project is also a shift in the mindset, and culture of a company, also implies changes in business models and operative models. All this changes by it self implies a change management approach.Digital transformation is the profound transformation of business and organizational activities, processes, competencies and models to fully leverage the changes and opportunities of a mix of digital technologies and their accelerating impact across society in a strategic and prioritized way, with present and future shifts in mind. Digital Transformation is not only change the technology.
It's an interesting question, and it shows that there are those people who like to categorize things, and those who don't.
Vertical Integration could be included with outsourcing or as the inverse. It is similar to merger and acquisition (and sometimes is) but other times it is developing the talent from within. Or Vertical Integration could include both inflow and outflow.
I'm not sure what you mean by operative models. I think reorganizations would fit in your list somewhere, if it is not already included already. In a large manufacturing business, operations is often considered more in the product side than the project/office side. The term can certainly extend to the office side however we sometimes say "I make charts not parts", to differentiate.
I also struggle a little bit about where Lean fits. It's part cultural (continuous improvement), and part operations (repeatability and removing waste), but that doesn't mean the whole universe of changes must neatly fit in one bucket.
The following is how we classify our projects
Innovation -- Truly unprecedented effort to realize new value unlocks (think data lakes)
Evolution -- Continuous improvement of a system or business process (think system upgrades/enhance)
Sustaining -- We must do this to maintain compliance and keep the lights on (think ELD mandate)
From there, we can elect to call them whatever we want to gain mindshare, advocacy, etc. But it really boils down to primary cause or purpose of the project.
Innovative: Are we agreeing to a project that will create an unprecedented capability, or a processes that will provide unprecedented business value?
Evolutionary: Are we agreeing to a project that provides an enhancement/upgrade of a system or process, making us incrementally better?
Sustaining: Are we agreeing to a project that allows us to keep the lights on (compliance, government mandates, technological housekeeping like 5G and LTE, etc).
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