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The only way to get any predictability around staff availability is to reduce multitasking between different work streams. This will require a combination of reducing the volume of concurrent projects and cross-training/upskilling so that you are increasing bench strength.
A good book to read on the subject is Tame Your Work Flow by Steve Tendon and Daniel Doiron - they combine lean flow concepts with Dr. Goldratt's Theory of Constraints.
I have seen various efforts to do this in large organizations with varying degrees of success. You can plan all you want, but as soon as something unexpected happens, all the plans are thrown into disarray. It's the same sort of situation that agile approaches are meant to address.
Effective approaches look at the issue from various levels and perspectives. For planned work, the scheduled work statement can be compared to the business plan. That doesn't tell you about specific crucial skills however.
For certain skills or individuals, you may need a resource calendar to know when key people are working specific projects. If you try that with everyone, it doesn't work for long.
To address the many skills working many projects, approaches such as using Obeya boards might help. At the group level, individuals discuss both their near term work, and longer term activities that may be on hold or at a low level of effort. Those discussions roll up from the team level through the management chain. At each level, the discussion focuses on the highest priorities. These discussions include current workload, upcoming near-term workload, and the long term perspective.
That planning will change routinely, so it turns into agile business management.
I agree with Kiron
Keith made a good point regarding Obeya boards: Here is the link to a video that shows you what Obeya is and how this critical element of visual management works https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ApbBW9h5Ko0.
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