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I have managed what we refer to as indefinite delivery/indefinite quantity type contracts (IDIQ). These contracts are written with a certain minimum delivery amount and include a maximum dollar value. The Buyer and contractor can then agree to deliver quantities that will satisfy both of their requirements.
Scope / Quantity variation in most cases will have an impact on timing. It shouldn't impact the performance if those changes were requested by the client.
However, you need to do an analysis for the scope and quantity changes especially if the material is a long lead item so it differs from case to case.
It is one of toughest questions to the contractor in construction domain. There might two types of variations to original scope (including quality of the Works). Major concerns to contractor might result from the unexpected variations to seriously affect the scope of the Works so that the performance of the Works might also be seriously suffering from cost, time, quality variations.
Another type of variation might be from the foreseen events and contractor's plans or bid prices might include scope variations to some extents without damaging the overall time and cost estimates, in this case, the performance might not be suffering.
In general, there might be relevant clauses of the contract to deal with unexpected variations and proper contract management from the early stage of project should be introduced and executed.
And there might also be some instructions of unit price which the contractor should carefully review and incorporate all price requirements of the instructions into his bid or plans.
In a BOQs contract, it is not easy for the contractor to handle the unexpected variations to mitigate the adverse impact to the original costs, quality and time unless the relevant clauses of the contract or the client allow(s) the contractor to revise his plans accordingly.
By the way, there are always unexpected variations in any construction contract even though the contractor might well prepare the plans or bid price. There might a dilemma for the contractor that in a high competition bid, overpricing or sufficient considerations in pricing might result in failure to award the contract.
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