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To understand that an estimation has en intrinsic error on it. I mean, an estimation is the best guess based on available information an available time to estimate. With this on hand all related stakeholders will understand that estimation must be reviewed along the project. Take a look to Barry Bothem´s Cone of Uncertainty.
It's hard to "ensure" participation. What you need to have is good negotiating skills.
Functional managers can provide an estimate and it should be appreciated that it is an estimate and it needs to be monitored whether this estimate is achievable.
Does the organization has historical data for the typical activity based on the actual completion from earlier projects?
Is not the activity duration stated by the functional manager is challenged by the project control?
How an organization's culture is factored in the duration of an activity?
How the stage of project is factored in an activity?
What is the agreement on the detail of deilverable and associated extent of work involved?
Above all when the activities are integrated and a schedule is developed how the risks and assumptions affect the activity or deliverable?
Further when such activity is done by contractor do they follow the same logic?
There are so many such issues whose effect can be minimized with historical data of similar completed projects.
Schedule development is a team activity and the schedule development process myst be agreed upon. It is not just someone goes and tell me how much time it will take without having a common understanding of the scope, detail of needed deliverable, associated assumptions, uncertainty in input data and so on.
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