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My recommendation is going to the PMI´s documentation on the matter mainly the Practice Guide for Business Analysis. Inside it, you will find the section "Collaboration" that stated how both roles work together and can be taken to understand the differences. BA does not execute the project. A certification is not enough no matter it helps. Just to comment, generally speaking, BA starts working from the idea to create the solution to the business case. If business case is approved then the project is started and PM starts working. When project ends PM stop working and BA continue working monitoring if the solution benefits are achieved. No matter the way I am writing this because I think is the best way to understand in "raw mode", collaborations between both before the project exists, along the project is needed.
BA's responsibility is usually to help discover business requirements and work with the rest of a team to turn those requirements into a working solution. I can't imagine BAs alone would be able to execute most projects but a BA could be part of a self-managing team working without a project manager. All depends on the abilities of the team as a whole.
Depends on the scale and complexity of a project. A small, low complexity project might not need a "titled" PM, but someone possessing sufficient PM skills who is primarily a BA could wear both hats. Once the scale or complexity increases, it is advisable to have separate individuals playing those roles...
In order to be an effective BA, I would argue that you need to have a reasonably strong understanding of project management. If you don't understand how a business solution goes from concept to delivery, then your analysis is likely to be lacking. It would be a bit like an architect designing a building with no idea how it is constructed.
To a certain degree, it depends on the size of the project. However, I’ve seen PM’s taking the role of BA’s as well in small projects but not the other way around unless the project has to do with Data Analytics.
I agree with Kion. Sergio made a good point as well.
The role of the project manager is to manage the project process. Part of that process is requirements gathering. The BA is part of that process. The role of the BA is to translate business needs into requirements. A BA works in the same space as a Product Owner or Manager and is often used as such in Agile development teams. Almost anyone can fill a position and manage to get something done. It is the way in which the job is done that matters.
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