Project Management

Project Management Methodologies

last edited by: Heather McLarnon on Jun 28, 2024 10:36 AM login/register to edit this page

1 1. Waterfall
   1.1 Phases:
   1.2 Advantages:
   1.3 Disadvantages:
2 2. Agile
   2.1 Principles:
   2.2 Advantages:
   2.3 Disadvantages:
3 3. Scrum
   3.1 Key Roles:
   3.2 Artifacts:
   3.3 Advantages:
   3.4 Disadvantages:
4 4. Kanban
   4.1 Principles:
   4.2 Advantages:
   4.3 Disadvantages:
5 5. Lean
   5.1 Principles:
   5.2 Advantages:
   5.3 Disadvantages:
6 6. Six Sigma
   6.1 Phases (DMAIC):
   6.2 Advantages:
   6.3 Disadvantages:

1. Waterfall

Definition: The Waterfall methodology is a linear and sequential approach where each phase must be completed before the next phase begins.


  • Requirement Analysis: Gather and document all requirements.
  • System Design: Create system architecture based on requirements.
  • Implementation: Develop the system based on the design.
  • Integration and Testing: Integrate and test the system to ensure it meets requirements.
  • Deployment: Deploy the system to the user environment.
  • Maintenance: Perform ongoing maintenance and updates.


  • Clear structure and easy to manage.
  • Well-documented process.
  • Good for projects with well-defined requirements.


  • Inflexible to changes.
  • Late detection of issues.
  • Not suitable for complex and long-term projects.

2. Agile

Definition: Agile is an iterative and incremental approach that emphasizes flexibility, collaboration, and customer feedback.


  • Customer Satisfaction: Deliver valuable software continuously.
  • Welcoming Change: Embrace changes even late in development.
  • Frequent Delivery: Deliver working software frequently.
  • Collaboration: Close, daily cooperation between business people and developers.
  • Motivated Individuals: Build projects around motivated individuals.
  • Face-to-Face Conversation: The most effective method of conveying information.


  • Flexible and adaptive to changes.
  • High customer involvement and satisfaction.
  • Early and continuous delivery of valuable software.


  • Requires experienced team members.
  • Can lead to scope creep without proper management.
  • Less predictability in terms of time and cost.

3. Scrum

Definition: Scrum is a specific Agile framework that uses fixed-length iterations called sprints, typically lasting 2-4 weeks.

Key Roles:

  • Product Owner: Defines the features of the product and decides on release dates and content.
  • Scrum Master: Ensures the team follows Scrum practices and removes impediments.
  • Development Team: Cross-functional group that designs, builds, and tests the product.


  • Product Backlog: A prioritized list of features and requirements.
  • Sprint Backlog: A list of tasks to be completed during a sprint.
  • Increment: The sum of all the product backlog items completed during a sprint.


  • Transparent process with daily stand-up meetings.
  • Regular feedback and continuous improvement.
  • High flexibility and adaptability.


  • Requires continuous commitment and involvement.
  • Can be challenging to manage scope and timeline.
  • Risk of underestimating complexity.

4. Kanban

Definition: Kanban is a visual management tool that uses a board to track the flow of work and optimize workflow.


  • Visualize Workflow: Use a board with columns representing stages of the workflow.
  • Limit Work in Progress (WIP): Set limits on the number of tasks in each stage to prevent bottlenecks.
  • Manage Flow: Ensure smooth and continuous workflow.
  • Make Policies Explicit: Clearly define rules and policies.
  • Implement Feedback Loops: Use regular reviews to improve the process.
  • Improve Collaboratively: Continuously seek incremental improvements.


  • Provides a clear visual overview of the workflow.
  • Helps identify and eliminate bottlenecks.
  • Encourages continuous improvement.


  • Can become complex if not managed properly.
  • Requires discipline to maintain WIP limits.
  • May not provide a clear timeline.

5. Lean

Definition: Lean methodology focuses on maximizing value by eliminating waste and improving efficiency.


  • Value: Define what value means from the customer’s perspective.
  • Value Stream: Map all steps in the process and eliminate steps that do not add value.
  • Flow: Ensure a smooth flow of work without interruptions.
  • Pull: Produce only what is needed, when it is needed.
  • Perfection: Strive for continuous improvement.


  • Reduces waste and increases efficiency.
  • Improves quality and customer satisfaction.
  • Encourages a culture of continuous improvement.


  • Can be difficult to implement and maintain.
  • Requires a cultural shift within the organization.
  • May not be suitable for all types of projects.

6. Six Sigma

Definition: Six Sigma is a data-driven methodology for eliminating defects and improving quality by using statistical methods.

Phases (DMAIC):

  • Define: Identify the problem and project goals.
  • Measure: Collect data and establish baseline performance.
  • Analyze: Identify root causes of defects.
  • Improve: Develop and implement solutions.
  • Control: Monitor the improvements to ensure sustained success.


  • Highly structured and data-driven approach.
  • Focuses on quality improvement and defect reduction.
  • Can lead to significant cost savings and efficiency gains.


  • Requires specialized training (e.g., Green Belt, Black Belt).
  • Can be time-consuming and resource-intensive.
  • May be too rigid for some projects.

last edited by: Heather McLarnon on Jun 28, 2024 10:36 AM login/register to edit this page

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