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If you attend to a PMP Course (I assume PMP is project management professional certification) we will learn how to pass the exam. It implies you need to understand what the PMI expect as an answer in the framework of the PMBOK. That´s all. If you do not understand that then you will not pass the exam. May be, some of the things you answer are not applicable to your daily work as project manager. No problem with that, it is logical. The percentage or quantity of things you will not apply it will depends on the environment where you run projects.
If someone has been an "accidental" PM working in a low project management maturity organization, the difference might be a lot greater than 30%. On the other hand, a seasoned PM working in an organization with established PM policies and standards that are aligned with a body of knowledge such as the PMBOK (yes, there are others out there!) might have a much lower gap.
The exam primarily deals with the technical side of the PMI talent triangle, and I would argue that the leadership and strategic areas are often a much bigger part of the responsibilities of a highly effective PM.
On the technical side itself, not all skills are required on all projects, nor at all businesses. The PMBoK is several hundred pages long as a reference for scale. The last time I used the IEEE SEMP template which includes both the technical and non-PM technical planning elements, the template itself was 20 or 30 pages long. At one very large company where I have seen their internal template, it is 200 pages long. Most projects don't use most of the template.
Having worked almost 20 years in PM type roles before taking the exam, I was surprised to find that most of what I learned in the field was actually quite standard even if it was called something else. Even things like the communication channels formula, I use to explain to people how critical effective communication is when we start adding people. Studying for the exam, I actually learned very little aside from how PMI organizes information, and how to prepare for their certification exam.
Theory is always a bit different than reality because in reality you tailor things to suit your project needs and you face challenges that requires innovation and problem solving skills so you need to go above and beyond.
While there is no certain percentage of how different they are because it differs from one person and project to another, the basics should be the same.
A lot of what you study does not apply to the real world all the time. I believe it is because the processes are tailored depending on your individual company, its work, and the way things have historically been done there. I also find that most of the general concepts absolutely apply. Effective communication, self-organizing teams, collaboration, transparency, sprints and iterations, failing early, delivering value early, etc. are all crucial elements in the real world. You won't use all of the concepts that you learn, however.
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