A project is a planned and coordinated piece of work that requires considerable effort to deliver a specific result.
According to PMI’s A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide), a project is a temporary endeavor to create a unique result. And it is performed by people, constrained by limited resources, planned, executed and controlled.
Project management is an interdisciplinary approach to balance the conflicting interests and constraints of a project: well done (scope), fast (time) and cheap (cost).
Although there are other important aspects of managing a project that will be covered in subsequent posts here, the triple constraint (scope, time and cost) implies that a project, large or small, addresses at least the following areas:
- Specific outcomes and results: requirements and deliverables (scope);
- Definite tasks, start and end dates: schedule (time);
- Established resources: people, materials and budget (cost)
Project managers perform four primary management functions:
1. Planning: This encompasses project initiation and detailed planning, involving processes to identify needs and requirements, define deliverables and tasks, estimate resources and develop the project management plan.
2. Organizing: This function prepares for execution, it is a supporting and administrative function to provide project structure and governance. Most of the time, organizing involves staffing and procurement, but other preparation activities might be included here.
3. Directing: This is the management function of getting the work done, managing execution according to the plan. It encompasses stakeholder engagement, team management and communications management.
4. Controlling: This function takes care of project performance monitoring, preventive and corrective actions and the integrated change control.
These functions might be performed in parallel and should not be understood as sequential.
Outside of these functions, project managers should also focus on managerial aspects of the project, including leadership. Although it is desirable that the project manager possess some knowledge in general business management, business analysis and the technical aspects of the project, they are usually supported by other experts in a number of project management related disciplines including systems engineering, requirements engineering and specialist engineering disciplines, quality assurance, integrated logistic support and more depending on the project and industry.
But, are these best practices really universal given all these factors? Please leave your comments below. We’ll be looking further into this question in subsequent posts.