Ethics Bistro

by , , , , , , , , , , , , ,
We all tackle ethical dilemmas. Wrong decisions can break careers. Which are the key challenges faced? What are some likely solutions? Where can we find effective tools? Who can apply these and why? Dry, theoretical discussions don't help. Join us for lively, light conversations to learn, share and grow!

About this Blog

RSS

View Posts By:

Kimberly Whitby
Simona Bonghez
Fabio Rigamonti
Lily Murariu
Karthik Ramamurthy
Mohamed Hassan
Alankar Karpe
Angelica Larios
Amany Nuseibeh
Deepa Bhide
John Watson
Enrique Cappella
Dr. André Onana
Valerie Denney

Recent Posts

An approach to ethics for Digital disruption projects

Vacation time...

Can empathy turn the tide in a project?

Caustic Comment Causes Cultural Crisis

Respect @ Workplace

An approach to ethics for Digital disruption projects

Categories: Ethics, responsibility, respect, fairness, honesty, digital disruption, digital transformation, leadershipresearch

   THE PROJECT

George is a newly hired project manager. It was his dream to join the company, a start-up on artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning in education. Working with digital disrupted technology was something he has waiting for a long time.

As a project manager, he is aware of the rise of these technologies and has decided to “get his feet wet” and develop his knowledge base with these concepts. In a recent read George become aware that according to Gartner 1, by 2020, AI will generate 2.3 million jobs, and  $2.9 trillion in business value by 2021. “AI is one of the most important things humanity is working on. It is more profound than […] electricity or fire”, indicates Google’s CEO2.

George is so ready to lead this project! Using the existing data base of client information, via a customer-centric approach, using AI and machine learning the client information will be analyzed, identifying patterns, and predictive capabilities to enrich and develop customized education products. With a global user-based audience the company is seeking to create long-lasting products that support, meet and exceed customers’ expectations.

 THE TEAM

The day of the kickoff meeting come, George met his team of data engineer, data scientist, infrastructure engineering, training specialists. The discussions were heated, as the project was very interesting, the deliverables were heavy, some of them a novelty in the field, but with strict and short deadlines as the company wanted to “break the ice” on the market with their products. The team was so excited, eager to apply knowledge and start the work. Right away they shared concerns towards the processes, the products to be created /delivered, and the impact on the users.

  ETHICAL QUESTIONS

(Source: pixabay.com)

During the meeting the team posed a variety of ethical questions related to how AI and machine learning impact the current and future of the project and the deliverables.

       Tom, the data engineer asked about the ethical considerations on this strategic project, and the role of the company’s leadership?

George recalled a recent issue on this topic of Brightline™  3 and he immediately shared the insights:

  • Humans, the team, the company, will always be in control despite the advanced technology used as they develop, implement these types of strategic projects and need to consider ethical aspects carefully; however, George called the team’s attention that cultural attitude is key barrier in strategy implementation;
  • Humans, the team, the company, are the ones thinking and assessing the needs, whereas the new technology (as the one used in this project) is an enabler, supporting humans to answer questions faster and more effectively; ethical awareness and knowledge of each team member is key.
  • The organization and its leaders will focus on strategy implementation and the technology selection process for their organization, considering the ethical aspects of the strategy, while scrutinizing the impacts of the technologies created. As there are many unknowns the team has been called to have open discussion regarding any ethical concerns they have or have been presented with. (Source:https://www.brightline.org/resources/the-brightline-initiative-is-exploring-how-humans-can-thrive-in-the-technological-age/) 4

(Source: pixabay.com)

The data scientist, the two software developers asked George if accessing the existing database of client information using AI and machine learning there are digital ethics and privacy concern, and how the users trust will be built, and maintained.

Personal information is sensitive and valuable, said George, and users may want access control over them. Fairness, trust, consent, protection of the individual privacy, the choice of users on how their information is to be used are just a few of the ethical aspects to be investigated.

The team engaged in the broader topic of digital ethics, how privacy and security are key elements in building trust.   The team will share best practices and be early adopters of the ones that support the needs of their project.

  ETHICAL PRINCIPLES 

(Source: pixabay.com)

The ethical quest continued on the ethical principles of the organization. George indicated that the journey of developing a digital ethical framework on the use of the disrupted technology is just in its early stages, as the company was moving from “are we compliant” toward “are we doing the right thing”, a bold move from compliance-driven organizations to ethics-driven organizations.

For defining the ethical principles of AI, on how AI is used in a fair and trust-building way, George suggested to the team a series of approaches, among which a European approach.The team agreed to continue the conversation for finding a model that support their organizational and project context. (Source: AI Finland: https://www.tekoalyaika.fi/en/background/ethics/ )5

  ETHICS RESOURCES

(Source: pixabay.com)

The entire team was eager to learn about the ethics resources in place.  George shared the company’s Code of Ethics, and reminded the team that responsibility, respect, fairness, and honesty 6 are the core values in their work; he has shared the compendium of PMI ethics resources 7 , including the practical tools of the Ethics in Project Management Toolkit 8.  It is George’s commitment to discuss ethics in each of the weekly meetings of the team and ensure that concerns are addressed, leadership is involved, and stakeholders are properly informed.

   MOVING FORWARD

(Source: pixabay.com)

The kick-off meeting was indeed one of a kind, as it was the project that everybody was so looking forward to advance. The team agreed to continue to engage in these conversations and support the organization throughout the development of the necessary policies, guidelines and tools that will bring run business ethically while addressing user needs and stakeholders’ expectations.

George realized that for this project ethics will be the status quo item on the agenda of the project team throughout the lifecycle of the project. As a project manager, he was ready to start his learning journey and take the team with him in developing their digital competencies, and project management skills and knowledge.

 LEARNING TOGETHER

(Source: pixabay.com)

Digital disrupted technology, digital transformation will result in more projects like this one or may be embedded as components of any other type of project, bringing ethics at the forefront of the discussion.

     

As a project manager, from your experience, what else could George do for his team to better support them to be “ethically equipped” during this interesting but challenging project?

What is the role of the team in all this time and what actions should they take?

How should the internal and external stakeholders be made aware and be involved?

As project managers what is our stance towards the four core values and how can we make sure that we do the right thing?

 

Thanks for sharing your insights and your experience.

 


DISCLAIMER: The names, roles in this story are fictional. Any resemblance to actual persons, living or dead, or actual events is purely coincidental.

GLOSSARY of TERMS:

  • Artificial Intelligence: the theory and development of computer systems able to perform tasks that normally require human intelligence, such as visual perception, speech recognition, decision-making, and translation between languages (Oxford Dictionary).
  • Digital Transformation: The use of new, fast and frequently changing digital technology to solve problems often utilising cloud computing (Wikipedia).
  • Digital Disruption: The change that occurs when new digital technologies and business models affect the value proposition of existing goods and services (Searchcio.com).
  • Disrupted Technology One that displaces an established technology and shakes up the industry or a ground-breaking product that creates a completely new industry.

SOURCES of INFORMATION:

  1. https://www.gartner.com/en/newsroom
  2. https://www.cnbc.com/2018/02/01/google-ceo-sundar-pichai-ai-is-more-important-than-fire-electricity.html
  3. https://www.brightline.org/about/
  4. https://www.brightline.org/resources/the-brightline-initiative-is-exploring-how-humans-can-thrive-in-the-technological-age/)
  5. https://www.tekoalyaika.fi/en/background/ethics/
  6. https://www.pmi.org/-/media/pmi/documents/public/pdf/ethics/pmi-code-of-ethics.pdf
  7. https://www.pmi.org/about/ethics/resources
  8. https://www.pmi.org/about/ethics/resources/toolkit
Posted by Lily Murariu on: August 08, 2019 10:32 AM | Permalink | Comments (19)

Vacation time...

I read some time ago that a good project manager is the one who can leave for vacation without causing any impediments to his/her project (as the team is prepared, everyone knows exactly what to do and how to do it).

Assuming that you are such a project manager, who will enjoy your vacation not worrying about your project 😊, we thought to give you some nerd kind of entertainment: do you fancy a crossword?!

Solve it and let us know if you succeed to find the hidden word (made of the light blue highlighted letters). Enjoy!

Horizontal:

  1. Our duty to show a high regard for ourselves, others, and the resources entrusted to us. 
  2. It outlines the ethical principles that govern our decisions and behavior. 
  3. A conclusion or resolution reached after consideration of all involved aspects, including ethics in most cases. 
  4. Moral principles that govern a person's behavior or the conducting of an activity.
  5. Our duty to make decisions and act impartially and objectively. 
  6. …. Ethics Assessment – ethics tool, component of the Ethics Toolkit, that provides an effective four-step process to assess team members’ knowledge on ethics. 
  7. Project Management Institute (abr.).
  8. Situations in which we must recognize divergent interests and refrain from influencing decisions (3 words).

Vertical:

  1. Ethics …. - designed by PMI to help project management practitioners to address ethical issues in their professional and volunteer activities.
  2. Our duty to take ownership for the decision we make or fail to make, the actions we take or fail to take, and the consequences that result.
  3. Framework developed by PMI, component of the Ethics Toolkit, that guides project managers toward ethical choices and accountability. (abr.)
  4. One of the most important factors that affect business ethics, through different interpretation of values, practices, behaviors.
  5. Morally good, justified, or acceptable. 
  6. A professional in the field of project management (2 words).
  7. Our duty to understand the truth and act in a truthful manner both in our communications and in our conduct.
  8. Ethics ..... Assessment - ethics tool, component of the Ethics Toolkit, that allows one to become self-aware of own ethics knowledge, understandings, and principles.

Note: the Ethics Toolkit is available on the PMI website:  https://www.pmi.org/about/ethics/resources/toolkit

Posted by Simona Bonghez on: July 15, 2019 09:11 AM | Permalink | Comments (22)

Can empathy turn the tide in a project?

Note – Readers might find this story distressing as it involves a team member passing away. Please use your own judgement.

Helen has heard it a few times, her counterpart from the supplier’s side wanted to attend to a team member related emergency.  Maya, the new team member has arrived just last week to take on a change management piece of work for a large and complex program.  Maya hasn’t been on site but once.  When Maya arrived to meet her new team, she excused herself as soon as she could – not feeling well and suspecting that she had food poisoning. 

Maya joined a couple of conference calls during the week. However, she has not joined the call she scheduled just before the weekend.  Maya’s colleagues have been trying to get in touch with her via phone and email with no response from Maya’s side. Knowing that she wasn’t feeling well, they thought initially that she might need to rest. As a new week started and another day went by, with Maya not responding to emails, text messages or phone calls, they thought they would ask the hotel staff to check on her. The staff advised that they have not entered the room for a few days respecting the “Do not disturb” sign that was put up. Fearing the worst, the team urged the hotel staff to get into the room to check on her. Unfortunately, fears translated into reality as she was found in her room resting peacefully but with no sign of life! 

What could have happened if the team checked on Maya before? What would have happened if any of her team members accompanied her or insisted to pay her a visit or take her to the doctor? Everyone in the team was in mere shock, the emotions ranged from guilt, blame, sadness, frustration and anger. The blow was more than any team member could handle on their own.

This was one of so many defining moments for Jack, who himself has moved countries to run the IT department and drive a large and complex transformation, modernizing the organization’s customers journey and building the back-bone for further incremental transformations to follow. The program has partnered with one of the off-shore IT suppliers to accompany them on the transformation journey, providing experienced resources both onshore and off-shore, flying people in and out of the country.  

Moving from his home country, Jack embraced his new-found home, the diversity of his teams, the variety of cultures, values, attitudes and behaviors that they all bring.  Jack has been tested numerous times while driving this initiative. The organization’s policies and priorities have safety and well-being at the top. This is well advertised and communicated, with functions, activities and awareness campaigns running in every corner. However, this specific program has faced several safety and well-being challenges. The program progress was slower than anticipated, running behind schedule, there was a definite need for the team to work harder in order to catch-up. Working late and during weekends have become the norm rather than the exception. The team members have been trying their best to ensure that all of this happens while still adhering to the organisation’s policies and practices ensuring safety and well-being, especially those who were new to the country.

Eighteen months since Maya’s incident, things have changed. Jack managed not only to deliver the program successfully, but also to have a happy and safe team, satisfied stakeholders, executives and the organisation’s Board.  Jack managed to turn the environment from a grim, sad one that had a negative impact on the team’s health and well-being to one that is more compassionate and understanding, translating policies into actions.  Furthermore, Jack was now looking forward to the new executive role he’s been offered in recognition of his outstanding leadership.

So how did Jack manage to turn this negative situation into a positive one, bring the team together, deliver and be promoted?  Simply put “Empathy and Ethics”.

Empathy as defined by Pressley, Delores[i]”is the ability to experience and relate to the thoughts, emotions or experience of others. Empathy is more than simple sympathy, which is being able to understand and support others with compassion or sensitivity. Simply put, empathy is the ability to step into someone else’s shoes, be aware of their feelings and understand their needs”.

Empathy is the oxygen breathing life into the relationship between individual and other, a metaphor introduced by Heinz Kohut (1977)[ii]

Applying the questions posed by Pressley, Deloresion The Importance of Empathy in the Workplace might help us understand how Jack’s empathy played a critical role in turning the tide. 

Jack understood the needs of all team members

Jack was well-aware of the conflicting priorities on the program, the layers of complexities within the cultures, especially co-locating client and supplier’s teams to work under one roof, bringing people from all corners of the world, while at the same time embedding new practices and policies. 

The supplier has won this gig in a very competitive bid, that pushed margins down. The supplier was pushing hard to meet their obligations under the contract, delivering according to schedules and timelines that have been committed as part of the bid. However, the toll that this took on team members was too dear a price to pay no matter which side they worked for. While Jack was committed to delivery, his priorities were surely team safety and well-being.

He realized that there are a number of factors at play in this situation, some he would have to tackle immediately and others he would have to put in place at a later stage. His humanistic side has come to the forefront, gathering the team, going through the detailed steps of the situation,  analyzing what could have been done better and what can be done in the future.  His empathy; putting himself into the supplier’s shoes, understanding the context without judgement or fear, taking steps to ensure that no other staff would have to go through any similar situation. 

He assembled the team members who were most close to Maya, gathering data and collecting information about what has been going on with her as a person, tracing her steps from the time she landed in the country, who contacted her and which capacity, drawing the timeline and the interactions.  While collecting the information, Jack demonstrated his appreciation for Maya and for every team member who got in touch with her, as well as the approach the supplier is undertaking to catch-up on delays.  His empathy combined with his high ethical standards, made each and every team member share detailed information about their communications, coming to an agreement on the gaps and what to needs to be in place to ensure that this situation would not be repeated in future. In understanding each team member’s experience in this instant, Jack has been developing a close relationship with the team.

What traits/behaviors did Jack have that would qualify his as empathetic?

Empathy requires three things [i]: listening, openness and understandingJack realized that delivering a successful transformation required that all team members, no matter which camp they belong to, are to feel safe and be well - both physically and mentally.  Hence, his understanding of the team’s feelings and emotions were critical to the next steps that he had to undertake. 

Empathy drove Jack to have a meeting with the executives and organization’s Board to negotiate more acceptable timelines taking into consideration the current situation and the progress rate to date. At the same time, he worked with the team to re-visit the schedule and suggest a couple of alternatives for delivery. This bad news has already claimed the previous head! Yet, Jack was not deterred. He believed firmly that there was a fine balance that needed to be maintained between delivery and well-being. He cared about his team, every single individual and the incidents that they have been through to date, while also caring about successful delivery of this very critical strategic initiative. 

What role does empathy play in the workplace? Why does it matter?

Jack’s understanding of the team members was critical to understanding the challenges that he would  face.  He made the team feel safe by not resorting to blame, but by listening openly and without any judgement.  This openness and understanding made the next steps much easier and as Jack had a clearer picture of the challenges he and the team would face.   

As each team member felt safe sharing their experiences, Jack had a better understanding of the changes that were needed. He identified areas for improvement such as formulating a “body system” for each employee, re-negotiating a more acceptable timeline - assisting struggling teams in catching-up while maintaining their well-being.

So why isn’t everyone like Jack - more empathetic at work?

Jack was one of the most humanistic, empathetic and ethical bosses the team and organization could ever have. With empathy and ethics, he managed to get the team through these heart-breaking times.  Empathy was not easy and took lot of hard work on Jack’s part, and this helped him put his head and shoulders above other leaders within the organization, where not only he was recognized for his outstanding leadership by his teams, his colleagues, the organization and the Board, but also his professional community.

Would you consider yourself to be empathetic? Would you share your empathy story? or how about sharing a “lack of empathy” story along with its impact? 

References


[i]https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/empathy-and-relationships/201701/the-connection-between-empathy-toward-others-and-ethics

[ii]http://www.sbnonline.com/article/the-importance-of-empathy-in-the-workplace/


 

 

Posted by Amany Nuseibeh on: June 30, 2019 10:08 PM | Permalink | Comments (31)

Caustic Comment Causes Cultural Crisis

Guru was happy that the weekly project status call was conflict-free. His feel-good was shattered by a sudden jolt. Nathan, a system architect, seemed to be in a foul mood. He was almost screaming. “Ananya: This is the worst documentation I’ve ever seen. You also delivered this trash several days late. I don’t want to work with you anymore!”

Ananya, a fresh college graduate and new recruit to the team, was shell-shocked. Her silence further angered Nathan, who demanded, “Is there a reply coming?”

Guru was also shocked by Nathan’s outburst. With Ananya staying silent, he moved through the remaining agenda items and ended the call.

Still dazed, Ananya headed straight to the cafeteria. Feeling for her, Guru wanted to immediately tackle the issue with sensitivity. Reaching out to her, he said, “What Nathan did was inexcusable. I apologize on his behalf. Why was he so upset with your work?”

She replied, “My colleague Jahangir was supposed to peer-review my manual on Wednesday. He fell sick. Since we were already late, I emailed it immediately. I agree that there were some quality issues. But that’s no reason for Nathan to humiliate me!”

Guru soothed the youngster. “I agree. Nathan shouldn’t have been so harsh. Maybe he was just being brutally frank. I too have faced the music from several people who are brutally honest with their views. But that’s no excuse for disrespect. I’ll certainly talk to him.”

He connected with Nathan for a brief discussion explaining the serious impact of the harsh words and unwarranted outburst. Nathan understood. He promised to immediately call Ananya and apologize.

Guru’s project was staffed by a virtual team with contributors from the US, UK, Brazil, India, and Japan. There had been several past conflicts based on cultural issues. However, severe time constraints had not allowed him to deal with these challenges.

At the PMI EMEA Congress that weekend, Guru attended the session, “Respect Culture or Face Failure: Leadership Lessons from the world over.”

Katherine, the speaker, started with the impactful words, “Does your project team gel well? If not, success will certainly elude you! If you, as PM, ignore this, you invite disaster.”

The presenter listed many factors that could adversely impact virtual teams: Age, Geography, Language, Attitudes towards Ethics, Religion, etc. Quoting NASA’s Dr. Stephen Johnson, she said, “The root causes of project failure are often cultural, not technical.”

She said that her experience as a global cultural consultant showed that such situations could be reversed. Proactive leaders could leverage positive cultural traits for the good of the project.

Katherine proposed a six-step process named “ASSIST” to manage cultural differences effectively:

When Katherine asked attendees to share their experiences, Guru narrated the recent project issue and actions he had taken. He asked, “What would you recommend?”

She replied that Guru’s actions were excellent responses. However, to prevent more such dangerous conflicts, the team would need to take a proactive stance on cultural differences.

At the tea break, Guru requested Katherine’s professional assistance in turning around the difficult situation. She readily agreed to help.

She began with an analysis of the team’s cultural mix and various traits that needed careful handling. Using customized team activities such as quizzes and role-plays, she sensitized the team on cultural differences.

Katherine’s interventions worked like a charm as conflicts significantly dropped.

As he approved a final payment, Guru thanked the consultant for her inputs. He told her that she had made a huge difference to his team’s chemistry and resolved to apply the six-step ASSIST process on every project.


Please comment on these factors to benefit our dynamic community here on projectmanagement.com:

  • Have you faced similar issues with cultural diversity in your teams? 
  • What were the negative effects of these issues?
  • What did you do to handle the problems?
Posted by Karthik Ramamurthy on: May 31, 2019 01:36 PM | Permalink | Comments (23)

Respect @ Workplace

If you ask anyone in your workplace how they would like to be treated by their managers and co-workers, most will use the words ‘Respect’, ‘Dignity’ and ‘Trust’. No one wants to be treated poorly, with bias and mistrust irrespective of the status, titles at workplace.

In today’s digital age where tweets run faster than thoughts and opinions are shared faster than the facts, the diversity is no longer means having different race, gender and religions but it also means respecting and treating differences in work style, generations and personalities with equality. Embracing workplace diversity is important, as it increases the talent pool and brings new ideas, perspectives and skills to your workforce.

People don’t always see eye-to-eye, and there are many things colleagues might disagree over at work. The correct order to carry out a project, the best way to solve a problem or a difference in work style could all be areas your employees often clash over. After all, everyone has a different perspective and outlook on how a project will progress. However, it’s important that your employees understand that, while discussion is important, you must be respectful, professional and pleasant while at work.

As we have seen, respect is a very important contributor to forming a positive, vibrant & thriving work culture. There are many ways that you and your teams can increase respect @ work

  • Managing anger. Controlling anger is important when in a professional work environment. You and your employees need to learn to let the little things go. Urge employees to avoid getting fixated and annoyed with things out of their control. Instead, they should learn to understand their triggers; maybe there is a provoking colleague or situation that gets them worked up. If you notice an employee often getting angry at work, you should engage in a one-to-one meeting, where you can discuss anger management techniques that might be beneficial to them.
  • Politeness rules. Politeness is a skill, an approach and a form of respect. This is something that is taught, conditioned and learned. Rude and abrasive conversations between team members will likely disrupt the positive workplace culture which is key to project success. No one wants to come to work if they are among the people who degrade, belittle and insult them.
  • Helping culture and collaboration Respecting each other’s point of view and accepting the differences of opinions helps in accepting each other as they are and increase collaboration and help among each other. The Agile Manifesto emphasizes value on individuals and interactions over processes and tools and emphasizes on Collaboration and helping each other. Once the teams learn to engage in respectful conversations, they will likely feel more confident and encouraged to share ideas and thoughts.
  • Avoid making perception and judging. At workplace, it is very easy to typecast people, their choices, behaviors. It is very easy to make perception based on very little information or fact and more often than not, perception is made when people fail to talk, understand and communicate clearly. Judging people is an easy way to destroy a positive workplace. It stops team members getting to know each other and can result in anger and aggravation. Encourage your teams to get to know each other instead and you start to develop a more peaceful atmosphere

References:

Posted by Alankar Karpe on: April 10, 2019 09:42 AM | Permalink | Comments (19)
ADVERTISEMENTS

"In Italy for thirty years under the Borgias they had warfare, terror, murder, bloodshed - but they produced Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, and the Renaissance. In Switzerland they had brotherly love, 500 years of democracy and peace, and what did that produce? The cuckoo clock."

- Orson Welles, The Third Man

ADVERTISEMENT

Sponsors